Background: Streptococcus pyogenes is an uncommon pathogen of purpura fulminans, and the pathogenesis of S. pyogenes-purpura fulminans remains unclear because of paucity of cases. We reported a pediatric case of S. pyogenes-purpura fulminans with literature review of the disease.
Case presentation: A 3-year-old boy showed limping, lethargy and acral gangrene within 24 h. A diagnosis of S. pyogenes-purpura fulminans was made for bacterial isolation from throat and peripheral blood. Intensive therapy led to a survival with amputation of the left distal metatarsal bone, and normal development. The isolated M12 carried no mutation of csrS/R or rgg. Thrombophilia or immunodeficiency was excluded.
Discussion: Twelve-reported cases (9 pediatric and 3 elderly) of S. pyogenes-purpura fulminans started with shock and coagulopathy. Five patients age < 8 years had no underlying disease and survived. One youngest and two immunocompromised patients died.
Conclusion: Streptococcus pyogenes-acute infectious purpura fulminans is a distinctive rare form of aggressive GAS infections.
Keywords: Acute infectious purpura fulminans; Disseminated intravascular coagulation; Invasive group A β-Streptococcus; Protein C deficiency; Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.