Vehicles will soon be connected and will be interacting directly with each other and with the road infrastructure, bringing substantial benefits in terms of safety and traffic efficiency. The past decade has seen the development of different wireless access technologies for vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communications and an extensive set of related use cases have been drafted, each with its own requirements. In this paper, focusing on short-range communications, we analyze the technical and economic motivations that are driving the development of new road users' connectivity, discussing the international intentions to mandate on board devices for V2X communication. We also go in depth with the enabling wireless access technologies, from IEEE 802.11p to short-range Cellular-V2X and other complementary technologies, such as visible light communication (VLC) and millimeterWaves, up to hybrid communication and 5G. We conclude our survey with some performance comparison in urban realistic scenarios, underlying that the choice of the future enabling technology is not so easy to predict and mostly depends on mandatory laws at the international level.
Keywords: 5G; IEEE 802.11p; LTE-V2V; VLC; cellular-V2X; connected vehicles; mmWave; performance comparison; vehicular sensor networks.