Purpose: We aimed to synthesize the evidence on the relation between different types of potato consumption with risk of all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, type 2 diabetes (T2D), colorectal cancer (CRC), and hypertension.
Methods: Systematic searches until May 2018 were conducted in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Random effects meta-analyses comparing extreme categories, linear and non-linear dose-response analyses were conducted.
Results: Twenty-eight reports were identified. Only total potato consumption was available for some endpoints which showed no associations with all-cause mortality (RR: 0.88, 95% CI 0.69-1.12), CHD (RR: 1.03, 95% CI 0.96-1.09), stroke (RR: 0.98, 95% CI 0.93-1.03), and CRC (RR: 1.05, 95% CI 0.92-1.20) per one daily/serving (150 g/day) increase. Consumption of one daily serving of boiled/baked/mashed-potatoes was not associated with risk of hypertension (RR: 1.08, 95% CI 0.96-1.21), but slightly with the risk of T2D (RR: 1.09, 95% 1.01-1.18). Positive associations for the risk of T2D (RR: 1.66, 95% CI 1.43-1.94) and hypertension (RR: 1.37, 95% CI 1.15-1.63) were observed for each 150 g/day increase in French-fries consumption. The quality of evidence was rated mostly low (moderate quality of evidence for the risk-associations of French-fries).
Conclusion: Total potato consumption is not related to risk for many chronic diseases but could pose a small increase in risk for T2D if consumed boiled. A clear risk relation was found between French-fries consumption and risk of T2D and hypertension. For several outcomes, the impact of different preparation procedures could not be assessed.
Keywords: Chronic disease; Dose–response; Meta-analysis; Potatoes.