A Review of Arterial Phantom Fabrication Methods for Flow Measurement Using PIV Techniques

Ann Biomed Eng. 2018 Nov;46(11):1697-1721. doi: 10.1007/s10439-018-2085-8. Epub 2018 Jul 9.


Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. In the last three decades, fluid dynamics investigations have been an important component in the study of the cardiovascular system and CVD. A large proportion of studies have been restricted to computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling of blood flow. However, with the development of flow measurement techniques such as particle image velocimetry (PIV), and recent advances in additive manufacturing, experimental investigation of such flow systems has become of interest to validate CFD studies, testing vascular implants and using the data for therapeutic procedures. This article reviews the technical aspects of in-vitro arterial flow measurement with the focus on PIV. CAD modeling of geometries and rapid prototyping of molds has been reviewed. Different processes of casting rigid and compliant models for experimental analysis have been reviewed and the accuracy of construction of each method has been compared. A review of refractive index matching and blood mimicking flow circuits is also provided. Methodologies and results of the most influential experimental studies are compared to elucidate the benefits, accuracy and limitations of each method.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease; Experimental fluid dynamics; Haemodynamics; In vitro experimentation; Manufacturing; Particle image velocimetry.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Arteries / physiopathology*
  • Blood Flow Velocity
  • Blood Vessel Prosthesis*
  • Humans
  • Models, Cardiovascular*
  • Phantoms, Imaging*