Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
, 9, 864
eCollection

Taxonomic Demarcation of Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. &Amp; Schult., S. Verticillata (L.) P. Beauv., and S. Viridis (L.) P. Beauv. (Cenchrinae, Paniceae, Panicoideae, Poaceae) From Phytolith Signatures

Affiliations

Taxonomic Demarcation of Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. &Amp; Schult., S. Verticillata (L.) P. Beauv., and S. Viridis (L.) P. Beauv. (Cenchrinae, Paniceae, Panicoideae, Poaceae) From Phytolith Signatures

Mudassir A Bhat et al. Front Plant Sci.

Abstract

Background and Aims: The role and significance of phytoliths in taxonomic diagnosis of grass species has been well documented with a focus on the types found in foliar epidermis and the synflorescence. The present paper is an attempt to broaden the scope of phytoliths in species diagnosis of grasses by developing phytolith signatures of some species of the foxtail genus Setaria P. Beauv. through in situ location and physico-chemical analysis of various phytolith morphotypes in different parts of the plant body. Methods: Clearing solution and dry ashing extraction methods were employed for in situ location and isolation of phytolith morphotypes respectively. Ultrastructural details were worked out by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Morphometric and frequency data of phytolith morphotypes were also recorded. Biochemical architecture of various phytolith types was worked out through SEM-EDX, XRD, and FTIR analysis. Data were analyzed through Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis. Key Results:In situ location of phytoliths revealed species specific epidermal patterns. The presence of cystoliths (calcium oxalate crystals) in the costal regions of adaxial leaf surface of S. verticillata (L.) P. Beauv. is the first report for the genus Setaria. Our results revealed marked variations in epidermal ornamentation and undulation patterns with a novel "Λ" (Lamda) type of undulated ornamentation reported in S. verticillata. Dry ashing method revealed species specific clusters of phytolith morphotypes. Conclusions: The study revealed that phytoliths can play a significant role in resolution of taxonomic identity of three species of Setaria. Each species was marked out by a unique assemblage of phytolith morphotypes from various parts of the plant body. Apart from in situ location and epidermal patterning, diagnostic shapes, frequency distribution, size dimensions, and biochemical architecture emerged as complementary traits that help in developing robust phytolith signatures for plant species.

Keywords: Setaria spp.; grasses; morphotypes; phytoliths; silica; taxonomic demarcation.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Distribution of sampling sites in India (a–e): Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult. and Setaria verticillata (L.) P. Beauv. (b,c) and Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv. & Schult. (d,e).
Figure 2
Figure 2
(A) In-situ location of phytoliths in leaf epidermis of Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult. Adaxial surface (a–g) and abaxial surface (h–l). (B) Morphological classification of bilobate phytolith morphotypes (data in Supplementary Table 4). (C) In-situ location of phytoliths in leaf epidermis of Setaria verticillata (L.) P. Beauv. Adaxial surface (a–i) and abaxial surface (j–k). (D) In-situ location of phytoliths in leaf epidermis of Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv. & Schult. Adaxial surface (a,b) and abaxial surface (c–f).
Figure 3
Figure 3
(A) Undulated patterns and ornamentations on the epidermal long cells of Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult. synflorescence. Columellate extensions (a–c); η-I type (d–g); granulate (h) and n-I type (i) type of epidermal undulation patterns. (B) Undulated patterns and ornamentations on the epidermal long cells of Setaria verticillata (L.) P. Beauv. synflorescence. η-I (a–c); Ω-I (d), Λ-I (e,f) Λ-II (g,h), Λ-III (i) and n-I (j), and n-II (k) type of epidermal undulation patterns. (C) Undulated patterns and ornamentations on the epidermal long cells of Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv. synflorescence. Ω-I (a,b,g), Ω –II with papillate structures (encircled) (c–e) and granulate epidermal extensions (f).
Figure 4
Figure 4
Phytolith morphotypes from various parts of Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult. (A) (Root): Bilobate class I (a); Bilobate class VI (b,c); Bilobate class V (d,e); Polylobate (f); Nodular bilobate (g,h); Globular polyhedral (i,j), Blocky irregular (k,l); Oblong (m); Trapezoid (n,o); Rectangular (p,q); Cuneiform bulliform (r); Tabular irregular (s–v); Scutiform (w). (B) (Culm): Blocky polyhedral (a,b); Trapezoid (c); Globular polyhedral (d); Echinate elongate (e,f); Sinuate elongate with concave ends (g); Tabular irregular (h); Sinuate elongate (i–k); Smooth elongate (l,m); Elongate irregular (n,o). (C) (Leaf): Tabular simple (a); Blocky irregular (b); Rectangular (c); Globular granulate (d,e); Blocky polyhedral (f); Parrellepedal bulliform cells (g); Trapezoid (h–l); Globular polyhedral (m); Clavate (n,o); Cuboid (p,q); Scutiform (r,s); Ovate (t,u); Cylindrical (v,w); Smooth elongate (x). (D) (synflorescence): Macrohairs (a–e); Cuneiform bulliform (f); Globular polyhedral (g); Epidermal elements (h); Echinate elongate (i–k); Clavate (i); Trapezoid (m,n), Tracheid (o), Blocky polyhedral (p,q); Elongate irregular (r,s); Horned tower (t,u); Blocky irregular (v); Globular granulate (w); Smooth elongate (x,y); Facetate elongate (z); Sinuate elongate (aa); Columellate elongate (ab); Stomata (ac); Prickle hair (ad); Bilobate class I (ae); Plates (af,ag).
Figure 5
Figure 5
Phytolith morphotypes from various parts of Setaria verticillata (L.) P.Beauv. (A) (Root): Cuneiform bulliform (a,b); Tabular simple (c); Blocky irregular (d–f); Cuboid (g); Globular echinate (h); Smooth elongate (i); Bilobate class VII (j); Blocky polyhedral (k–m); Crescent moon (n,o); Parrellepedal bulliform cells (p,q); Rectangular (r,s); Globular polyhedral (t–v); Elongate with concave ends (w); Cylindrical (x); Triangular (y); Trapezoid (z). (B) (Culm): Sinuate elongate (a); Ovate (b,c); Blocky crenate (d,e); Globular psilate (f); Trapezoid (g,h); Clavate (i); Scutiform (j,k); Blocky irregular (l–n); Blocky polyhedral (o); Cuboid (p); Smooth elongate (q); Half-moon (r). (C) (Leaf): Globular granulate (a,b); Globular polyhedral (c); Rectangular (d,e); Blocky polyhedral (f); Elongate irregular (g,h); Horned tower (i–k); Tabular irregular (l); Trapezoid (m–o); Scutiform (p); Bilobate class IV (q); Bilobate class VII (r); Nodular bilobate (s); Cuneiform bulliform (t–v); Blocky irregular (w,x). (D) (Synflorescence): Epidermal element with columellate extensions (a); Cuneiform bulliform (b,c); Blocky polyhedral (d) Smooth elongate (e,f); Rectangular (g); Cuboid (h); Clavate (i); Acicular (j,k); Polylobate irregular (l); Rondel (m–o); Cross (p); Globular polyhedral (q,r); Scutiform (s–u); Columellate elongate (v); Echinate elongate (w); Trapezoid (x–z).
Figure 6
Figure 6
Phytolith morphotypes from various parts of Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv. (A) (Root): Blocky polyhedral (a,b); Triangular (c,d); Rectangular (e–g); Blocky irregular (h); Trapezoid (i–k); cuboid (l,m); Globular psilate (n); Globular granulate (o–q); Scutiform (r,s); Parrellepedal bulliform cells (t–v); Oblong (w). (B) (Culm): Globular polyhedral (a–e); plates (f,g); Triangular (h); Cuneiform bulliform (i); Rondel (j); Smooth elongate (k); Rectangular (l–n); Blocky irregular (o,p); Blocky polyhedral (q,r); Globular echinate (s); Carinate (t,u); Bilobate class VIII (v); Clavate (w,x); Trapezoid (y–z1); Cuboid (z2, z3); Elongate irregular (z4). (C) (Leaf): Blocky irregular (a–d); Tabular polyhedral (e); Clavate (f); Echinate elongate (g,h); Sinuate elongate (i); Smooth elongate (j); Pickle hair (k); Globular granulate (l–o); Scutiform (p–s); Cuboid (t–v); Trapezoid (w–y); Ovate (z,z1); Bilobates class VII (z2) Bilobates class VIII (z3); Plates (z4,z5). (D) (Synflorescence): Cuneiform bulliform (a–c); Blocky polyhedral (d–g); Bilobate class II (h–j); Blocky irregular (k,l); Parrellepedal bulliform cells (m–o); Globular polyhedral (p–r); Ovate (s,t); Smooth elongate (u,v); Acicular (w); Prickle hair (x); Globular psilate (y,z); Cylindrical (z1).
Figure 7
Figure 7
Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM) of phytolith morphotypes from various parts of: (A) Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult. Root: Globular granulate (a) Blocky irregular (b); Bilobate class V (c). Culm: Globular granulate (d) Cuneiform bulliform (e). Blocky polyhedral (f); Trapezoid (g); Leaf: Trapezoid (h,i); Blocky irregular (j); Blocky polyhedral (k); Globular echinate (l); Elonagate irregular (m). Synflorescence: Prickle hair (n); Blocky irregular (o); Epidermal element with undulated ridges (p); Globular polyhedral (q,r); Trapezoid (s); Prickle hair (t). (B) Setaria verticillata (L.) P.Beauv. Root: Blocky polyhedral (a,b); Cuneiform bulliform (c); Trapezoid (d); Globular psilate (e). Culm: Scutiform (f); Elongate irregular (g). Leaf: Globular polyhedral (h); Globular granulate (i); Blocky irregular (j); Blocky polyhedral (k). Synflorescence: Echinate elongate (l); Crenate elongate (m); Columellate elongate (n); Blocky papillate (o); Trapezoid (p); Acicular (q); Blocky irregular (r); Rugose elongate (s). (C) Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv. Root: Globular polyhedral (a); Blocky irregular (b); Blocky polyhedral (c,d); Trapezoid (e,f). Culm: Trapezoid (g). Globular polyhedral (h); Epidermal element with undulated ridge (i); Blocky irregular (j); Globular psilate (k); Tabular polyhedral (l). Leaf: Trapezoid (m); Blocky polyhedral (n); Globular echinate (o,p); Tabular irregular (q); Globular crenate (r); Bilobate class V (s); Tabular polyhedral (t). Synflorescence: Trapezoid (u); Epidermal element (v); Epidermal element with silica short cells & stomata (w,y); Carinate (x); Globular polyhedral (z); Triangular (aa); Blocky polyhedral (ab); Prickly elongate (ac); Epidermal papillate (ad); Scutiform (ae).
Figure 8
Figure 8
Clustering of three species of Setaria P. Beauv. based on presence/absence data of bilobate phytolith morphotypes. [SP, Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.; SVC, Setaria verticillata (L.) P. Beauv.; SV, Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv.].
Figure 9
Figure 9
Stratigraphic diagram showing percentage frequency of different phytolith morphotypes. (Description of phytolith morphotypes from Table 1).
Figure 10
Figure 10
Transmission electron microscopy of Phytoliths (A,B): Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult. Leaf (A) (a–d) Clusters and agglomerates of silica (e) HRTEM (f) SAED patterns (Figures in parenthesis indicate hkl values and for description of alphabets refer Supplementary Table 8) and Synflorescence (B) (a–d) (Clusters and agglomerates of silica (e) HRTEM (f) SAED patterns (Figures in parenthesis indicate hkl values and for description of alphabets refer Supplementary Table 8). (C,D) Setaria verticillata (L.) P. Beauv. Leaf (C) (a–c) Clusters and agglomerates of silica (d–e) HRTEM (f) SAED patterns and Synflorescence (D) (a–b) Clusters and agglomerates of silica (c) HRTEM (d) SAED patterns (Figures in parenthesis indicate hkl values and for description of alphabets refer Supplementary Table 8). (E,F) Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv. Leaf (E) (a,b) Spherical silica particles (c) HRTEM (d) SAED patterns (Figures in parenthesis indicate hkl values and for description of alphabets refer Supplementary Table 8) and Synflorescence (F) (a,b) Cubic and agglomerated silica (c) HRTEM (d) SAED patterns (Figures in parenthesis indicate hkl values and for description of alphabets refer Supplementary Table 8).
Figure 11
Figure 11
SEM-EDX spectra of phytoliths isolated from different parts: (A) Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv. Root (1-a); Culm (2-b); Leaf (3-c); and Synflorescence (4-d). (B) Setaria verticillata (L.) P.Beauv. Root (1-a); Culm (2-b); Leaf (3-c,4-d), and Synflorescence (5-e). (C) Setaria pumila (Poir. Roem. & Schult. Root (1-a); Culm (2-b); Leaf (3-c); and Synflorescence (4-d).
Figure 12
Figure 12
PC analysis of elemental composition of data of phytolith morphotypes of Setaria spp. SPR, Setaria pumila root; SPC, Setaria pumila culm; SPL, Setaria pumila leaf; SPS, Setaria pumila synflorescence; SVCR, Setaria verticillata root; SVCC, Setaria verticillata culm; SVCL, Setaria verticillata leaf; SVCS, Setaria verticillata synflorescence; SVR, Setaria viridis root; SVC, Setaria viridis culm; SVL, Setaria viridis leaf; SVS, Setaria viridis synflorescence.
Figure 13
Figure 13
XRD diffraction spectra of phytoliths isolated from different parts of Setaria spp. (A) Setraia pumila (B) Setaria verticillata (C) Setaria viridis (for description of peak points, refer to Supplementary Table 8).
Figure 14
Figure 14
FTIR spectra of phytoliths from different parts of Setaria sps. (A) Setaria pumila (B) Setaria verticillata (C) Setaria viridis (for description of peak points, refer to Supplementary Table 9).

Similar articles

See all similar articles

References

    1. Albert R. M., Bar-Yosef O., Weiner S. (2007). Use of plant material in Kebara cave: phytoliths and mineralogical analyses, in The Middle and Upper Paleolithic Archaeology Cambridge, eds Bar-Yosef O., Meignen L., editors. (Israel, MA: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology Harvard University; ), 147–162.
    1. Albert R. M., Henry D. O. (2004). Herding and agricultural activities at the early Neolithic site of Ayn Abu Nukhayla (Wady Rum, Jordan). The results of phytolith and spherulite analyses. Paléorient 30, 81–92. 10.3406/paleo.2004.1012 - DOI
    1. Alexandre A., Basile-Doelsch I., Delhaye T., Borshneck D., Mazur J. C., Reyerson P., et al. (2015). New highlights of phytolith structure and occluded carbon location: 3-D X-ray microscopy and Nano SIMS results. Biogeosciences 12, 863–873. 10.5194/bg-12-863-2015 - DOI
    1. Aliscioni S. S., Gómiz N. E., Torretta J. P., Pensiero J. F. (2011). Reproductive biology of Setaria magna Griseb. (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 293, 111–118. 10.1007/s00606-011-0428-0 - DOI
    1. Aliscioni S. S., Ospina J. C., Gomiz N. E. (2016). Morphology and leaf anatomy of Setaria sl (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae) and its taxonomic significance. Plant Syst. Evol. 302, 173–185. 10.1007/s00606-015-1251-9 - DOI

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback