Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease leading to insulin deficiency. Autoantibodies to beta cell proteins are already present in the asymptomatic phase of type 1 diabetes. Recent findings have suggested a number of additional minor autoantigens in patients with type 1 diabetes. We have established luciferase immunoprecipitation systems (LIPS) for anti-MTIF3, anti-PPIL2, anti-NUP50 and anti-MLH1 and analyzed samples from 500 patients with type 1 diabetes at onset of clinical disease and 200 healthy individuals who had a family history of type 1 diabetes but no evidence of beta cell autoantibodies. We show significantly higher frequencies of anti-MTIF3, anti-PPIL2 and anti-MLH1 in recent onset type 1 diabetes patients in comparison to controls. In addition, antibodies to NUP50 were associated with HLA-DRB1*03 and antibodies to MLH1 were associated with HLA-DRB1*04 genotypes.
Keywords: Autoantigens; MLH1; MTIF3; NUP50; PPIL2; Type 1 diabetes mellitus.
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