Background Biotinidase deficiency (BD) is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder of biotin recycling. It is classified into two levels based on the biotinidase enzyme activity: partial deficiency (10%-30% enzyme activity) and profound deficiency (0%-10% enzyme activity). The aims of this study were to evaluate our patients with BD, identify the spectrum of biotinidase (BTD) gene mutations in Turkish patients and to determine the clinical and laboratory findings of our patients and their follow-up period. Methods A total of 259 patients who were diagnosed with BD were enrolled in the study. One hundred and forty-eight patients were male (57.1%), and 111 patients were female (42.9%). Results The number of patients detected by newborn screening was 221 (85.3%). By family screening, 31 (12%) patients were diagnosed with BD. Seven patients (2.7%) had different initial complaints and were diagnosed with BD. Partial BD was detected in 186 (71.8%) patients, and the profound deficiency was detected in 73 (28.2%) patients. Most of our patients were asymptomatic. The most commonly found variants were p.D444H, p.R157H, c.98_104delinsTCC. The novel mutations which were detected in this study are p.D401N(c.1201G>A), p.A82G (c.245C>G), p.F128S(c.383T>C), c617_619del/TTG (p.Val207del), p.A287T(c.859G>A), p.S491H(c.1471A>G). The most common mutation was p.R157H in profound BD and p.D444H in partial BD. All diagnosed patients were treated with biotin. Conclusions The diagnosis of BD should be based on plasma biotinidase activity and molecular analysis. We determined the clinical and genetic spectra of a large group of patients with BD from Western Turkey. The frequent mutations in our study were similar to the literature. In this study, six novel mutations were described.
Keywords: biotinidase deficiency; newborn screening; novel mutation.