An Overview of Fish-borne Nematodiases among Returned Travelers for Recent 25 Years- Unexpected Diseases Sometimes Far Away from the Origin

Korean J Parasitol. 2018 Jun;56(3):215-227. doi: 10.3347/kjp.2018.56.3.215. Epub 2018 Jun 30.


Along with globalization of traveling and trading, fish-borne nematodiases seems to be increasing in number. However, apart from occasional and sporadic case reports or mini-reviews of particular diseases in particular countries, an overview of fish-borne nematodiasis among travelers have never been performed. In this review, we gathered fishborne nematodiasis among travelers for recent 25 years by an extensive global literature survey using appropriate keywords, e.g. travelers diseases, human infection, anisakiasis, gnathostomiasis, capillariasis, sushi, sashimi, ceviche, Gnathostoma, Pseudoterranova, Anisakis, Capillaria, etc., as well as various combinations of these key words. The Internet search engines PubMed, Medline, Google and Googler Scholar were used as much as possible, and the references of every paper were checked in order to identify useful and reliable publications. The results showed unexpectedly high incidence of gnathostomiasis and low incidence of anisakidosis. The different incidence values of the infection with several fish-borne zoonotic nematode species are discussed, as well as some epidemiological aspects of the infections. The difficulties of differential diagnosis in non-endemic countries are emphasized. It is concluded that travelers must avoid risky behaviors which can lead to infection and that physicians and health authorities must advice travelers on the risks of eating behaviors during travel.

Keywords: human infection; public health; traveler; zoonosis; Fish-borne nematode.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anisakiasis / diagnosis
  • Anisakiasis / epidemiology
  • Anisakiasis / parasitology
  • Anisakiasis / prevention & control
  • Fishes / parasitology*
  • Gnathostomiasis / diagnosis
  • Gnathostomiasis / epidemiology
  • Gnathostomiasis / parasitology
  • Gnathostomiasis / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Nematode Infections / diagnosis
  • Nematode Infections / epidemiology*
  • Nematode Infections / parasitology*
  • Nematode Infections / prevention & control
  • Time Factors
  • Travel-Related Illness*
  • Zoonoses