Lethal outcome of granulomatous acanthamoebic encephalitis in a man who was human immunodeficiency virus-positive: a case report

J Med Case Rep. 2018 Jul 12;12(1):201. doi: 10.1186/s13256-018-1734-8.

Abstract

Background: Acanthamoeba species can cause disseminating infections in immunocompromised individuals.

Case presentation: Here, we report a case of granulomatous acanthamoebic encephalitis with a lethal outcome in a 54-year-old German man who was human immunodeficiency virus-positive. The diagnosis was based on symptoms of progressive neurological deficits, including sensorimotor paralysis of his right leg and deteriorating alertness. Due to the rapid course and rather late diagnosis of the infection, effective treatment could not be applied and he died 12 days after hospital admission.

Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the second case of granulomatous acanthamoebic encephalitis reported within Germany. Our case highlights the importance of early diagnosis of granulomatous acanthamoebic encephalitis to prevent fatal outcome.

Keywords: Acanthamoeba species; GAE; HIV; Miltefosine treatment.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Acanthamoeba / isolation & purification*
  • Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections / complications
  • Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections / diagnostic imaging
  • Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections / parasitology*
  • Fatal Outcome
  • Granuloma / diagnostic imaging
  • Granuloma / parasitology
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • Humans
  • Infectious Encephalitis / complications
  • Infectious Encephalitis / diagnostic imaging
  • Infectious Encephalitis / parasitology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged