Commonly, the angiogenic growth factors signify healing. However, gastrointestinal ulceration is still poorly understood particularly with respect to a general pharmacological/pathophysiological role of various angiogenic growth factors implemented in growth factors wound healing concept. Thereby, we focused on the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, a peptide given always alone vs. standard peptidergic angiogenic growth factors (EGF, FGF, VEGF), and numerous carriers. Further, we reviewed how the gastrointestinal tract healing could be generally perceived (i) in terms of angiogenic growth factors, and/or (ii) through the healing of extragastrointestinal tissues healing, such as tendon, ligament, muscle and bone, and vice versa. Respected were the beneficial effects obtained with free peptides or peptides with different carriers; EGF, FGF, VEGF, and BPC 157, their presentation along with injuries, and a healing commonality, providing their implementation in both gastrointestinal ulcer healing and tendon, ligament, muscle and bone healing. Only BPC 157 was consistently effective in all of the models of acute/chronic injury of esophagus, stomach, duodenum and lower gastrointestinal tract, intraperitoneally, per-orally or locally. Unlike bFGF-, EGF-, VEGF-gastrointestinal tract studies demonstrating improved healing, most of the studies on tendon, muscle and bone injuries provide evidence of their (increased) presentation along with the various procedures used to produce beneficial effects, compared to fewer studies in vitro, while in vivo healing has a limited number of studies, commonly limited to local application, diverse healing evidence with diverse carriers and delivery systems. Contrary to this, BPC 157 - using same regimens like in gastrointestinal healing studies - improves tendon, ligament and bone healing, accurately implementing its own angiogenic effect in the healing. Thus, we claim that just BPC 157 represents in practice a pharmacological and pathophysiological role of various peptidergic growth factors.
Keywords: Angiogenic growth factors; VEGF; gastrointestinal healing; ligament and bone healing; pentadecapeptide BPC 157; tendon..
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