HIV Coinfection Among Persons Diagnosed As Having Sexually Transmitted Diseases, San Francisco, 2007 to 2014

Sex Transm Dis. 2018 Aug;45(8):563-572. doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000789.


Background: Early syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia but not HIV infections have increased in San Francisco, primarily among men.

Methods: We linked records of persons reported with early syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia to records of persons reported with HIV to measure the proportion and characteristics of San Francisco residents with HIV-sexually transmitted disease (STD) coinfection between 2007 and 2014. We measured trends in HIV coinfection separately for men and women for each STD.

Results: From 2007 to 2014, of the 5745 early syphilis, 18,037 gonorrhea, and 37,224 chlamydia diagnoses that were reported, 66%, 28%, and 15%, respectively, were among persons coinfected with HIV. Men accounted for most persons with early syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia HIV coinfection. For early syphilis and HIV coinfection, among men who have sex with men (MSM), Latinos were more likely and Asian/Pacific Islanders were less likely to have HIV coinfection compared with whites. Older age at diagnosis and history of an STD were both also significantly associated with early syphilis and HIV coinfection. Transgender persons, older ages, Latino MSM compared with white MSM, and those with a history of STD were more likely to have HIV coinfection, whereas Asian/Pacific Islander MSM were less likely to have HIV coinfection for both gonorrhea and chlamydia, CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the high burden of HIV-STD coinfection in San Francisco. To maintain the current declines in HIV incidence and turn the curve in rising STD incidence, there is an urgent need for collaborative HIV and STD prevention and control efforts.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Chlamydia Infections / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Gonorrhea / epidemiology*
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Syphilis / epidemiology*
  • Young Adult