This article reviews the definition, pathophysiology, etiology, assessment, and management of acute respiratory failure in children. Acute respiratory failure is the inability of the respiratory system to maintain oxygenation or eliminate carbon dioxide. Acute respiratory failure is a common cause for admission to a pediatric intensive care unit. Most causes of acute respiratory failure can be grouped into one of three categories: lung parenchymal disease, airway obstruction, or neuromuscular dysfunction. Many patients with acute respiratory failure are managed successfully with noninvasive respiratory support; however, in severe cases, patients may require intubation and mechanical ventilation. [Pediatr Ann. 2018;47(7):e268-e273.].
Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.