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Case Reports
. 2018 Dec;24(12):995-997.
doi: 10.1016/j.jiac.2018.06.004. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

A Case of Refractory Cytomegalovirus-Related Thrombocytopenia That Achieved Complete Remission Without Antiviral Therapy

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Case Reports

A Case of Refractory Cytomegalovirus-Related Thrombocytopenia That Achieved Complete Remission Without Antiviral Therapy

Yosuke Nishio et al. J Infect Chemother. .

Abstract

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the major infectious etiologies that induce thrombocytopenia. Although immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) in children is often preceded by viral infections, thrombocytopenia associated with active CMV infection is considered CMV-related thrombocytopenia (CMV-thrombocytopenia), which can be distinguished from ITP. CMV-thrombocytopenia is reported to be less responsive to standard therapies for ITP and may require antiviral therapies. We herein report a case of refractory CMV-thrombocytopenia that achieved complete remission without antiviral therapy. A 20-month-old boy presented with a 2-day history of fever and systemic petechiae. There were no abnormal findings except for an extremely low platelet count (8000/μl) on blood examinations. He was clinically diagnosed with ITP, and intravenous immunoglobulin was administered twice, but his platelet count did not increase. CMV infection was suspected serologically, and a high CMV DNA load was detected in serum by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Without antiviral treatment, the CMV DNA load decreased below the detection limit on the 11th day of admission, followed by complete remission of the thrombocytopenia. The present case suggests that spontaneous recovery of thrombocytopenia can be expected in immunocompetent patients with CMV-thrombocytopenia in whom decreased CMV DNA load is observed.

Keywords: Cytomegalovirus; Immune thrombocytopenic purpura; Thrombocytopenia.

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