We aimed to investigate the incidence and risk factors associated with nonselective removal of peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC) in neonates. In this prospective cohort study, neonates who underwent PICC placement at neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in China from October 2012 to November 2015 were included. The patient demographics, catheter characteristics, catheter duration, PICC insertion site, indication for PICC insertion, infuscate composition, PICC tip location, and catheter complications were recorded in a computerized database. Risk factors for nonselective removal were analyzed. A total of 497 PICCs were placed in 496 neonates. Nonselective removal occurred in 9.3% of PICCs during 10,540 catheter-days (4.6 nonselective removals per 1,000 catheter-days). These included occlusion (3%), infection (1.4%), leakage (2.0%), phlebitis (0.6%), displacement (1%), pleural effusion(0.6%), and breaks (0.6%). Noncentral tip position was independently associated with an increased risk of nonselective removal (odds ratio 2.621; 95% confidence interval, 1.258-5.461) after adjusting for gestational age, sex, birth weight, and PICC dwell time. No significant differences in the rate of complications occurred between silastic and polyurethane PICC or different insertion sites. Noncentral PICC tip position was the only independent risk factor for nonselective removal of PICC.