Objective: To investigate mechanisms underlying the capability of ADAM15 to transform FasL-mediated death-inducing signals into prosurvival activation of Src and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs).
Methods: Caspase 3/7 activity and apoptosis rate were determined in RASFs and ADAM15-transfected T/C28a4 cells upon Fas/CD95 triggering using enzyme assays and annexin V staining. Phosphorylated Src and FAK were analyzed by immunoblotting. Interactions of ADAM15 and CD95 with calmodulin (CaM), Src, or FAK were analyzed by pull-downs using CaM-Sepharose and coimmunoprecipitations with specific antibodies. Protein binding assays were performed using recombinant CaM and ADAM15. Immunofluorescence was performed to investigate subcellular colocalization of ADAM15, Fas/CD95, and CaM.
Results: The antiapoptotic effect of ADAM15 in FasL-stimulated cells was demonstrated either by increased apoptosis of cells transfected with an ADAM15 construct lacking the cytoplasmic domain compared to cells transfected with full-length ADAM15 or by reduced apoptosis resistance of RASFs upon RNA interference silencing of ADAM15. Fas ligation triggered a Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ /calcium release-activated calcium channel protein 1 (CRAC/Orai1) channel-dependent CaM recruitment to Fas/CD95 and ADAM15 in the cell membrane. Simultaneously, Src associated with CaM was shown to become engaged in the ADAM15 complex also containing cytoplasmic-bound FAK. Accordingly, Fas ligation in RASFs led to ADAM15-dependent phosphorylation of Src and FAK, which was associated with increased survival. Pharmacologic interference with either the CaM inhibitor trifluoperazine or the CRAC/Orai inhibitor BTP-2 simultaneously applied with FasL synergistically enhanced Fas-mediated apoptosis in RASFs.
Conclusion: ADAM15 provides a scaffold for formation of CaM-dependent prosurvival signaling complexes upon CRAC/Orai coactivation by FasL-induced death signals and a potential therapeutic target to break apoptosis resistance in RASFs.
© 2018, American College of Rheumatology.