Purpose: The main objective of the present research work was to study the anticancer properties of rosmarinic acid in OVCAR-3 human ovarian cancer cells and also to evaluate its effects on apoptosis induction, cancer cell migration and modulation of lncRNA MALAT-1 expression.
Methods: MTT assay was used to study the effects of the agent on OVCAR-3 cell viability, while inverted phase contrast microscopy and fluorescence microscopy were used to study the effects on cell morphology. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the effects of rosmarinic acid on cell surface morphology in OVCAR-3 cells. In vitro wound healing assay was used to study the effects on cell migration.
Results: Rosmarinic acid induced time-dependent and concentration- dependent cytotoxic effects in these malignant cells. The IC50 values at 48 and 72 hrs time intervals were found to be 34.6 and 25.1 μM respectively. Rosmarinic acidtreated cells revealed significant changes in cell morphology including cellular shrinkage and cell rounding. The cells also lost attachment with the plate surface. Doses of 10, 40 and 160 μM rosmarinic acid led to a substantial increase in bright blue fluorescence which is a signpost of chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. Rosmarinic acid treatment also led to a significant suppression of cell migration corresponding to 46.5% and 86.2 % cell migration inhibition at 40 and 160 μM doses, respectively.
Conclusion: In conclusion, the current study showed that rosmarinic acid induced potent anticancer effects in OCVAR- 3 cancer cells by inducing apoptosis, inhibiting cell migration and modulating lncRNA Malat-1 expression.