Comparison of Ground-Based PM 2.5 and PM 10 Concentrations in China, India, and the U.S

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Jul 2;15(7):1382. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15071382.


Urbanization and industrialization have spurred air pollution, making it a global problem. An understanding of the spatiotemporal characteristics of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm and 10 μm, respectively) is necessary to mitigate air pollution. We compared the characteristics of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations and their trends of China, India, and the U.S. from 2014 to 2017. Particulate matter levels were lowest in the U.S., while China showed higher concentrations, and India showed the highest. Interestingly, significant declines in PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were found in some of the most polluted regions in China as well as the U.S. No comparable decline was observed in India. A strong seasonal trend was observed in China and India, with the highest values occurring in winter and the lowest in summer. The opposite trend was noted for the U.S. PM2.5 was highly correlated with PM10 for both China and India, but the correlation was poor for the U.S. With regard to reducing particulate matter pollutant concentrations, developing countries can learn from the experiences of developed nations and benefit by establishing and implementing joint regional air pollution control programs.

Keywords: air pollution; air quality index; environmental policy; particulate matter; spatiotemporal variations.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Air Pollutants / analysis*
  • Air Pollution / analysis*
  • China
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • India
  • Particulate Matter / analysis*
  • Seasons
  • United States
  • Urbanization


  • Air Pollutants
  • Particulate Matter