This article provides a detailed review of current knowledge on the role of vitamin D and its receptor in the biology and management of uterine fibroids (UFs). Authors present ideas for future steps in this area. A literature search was conducted in PubMed using the following key words: "uterine fibroid" and "vitamin D". The results of the available studies, published in English from January 2002 up to April 2018, have been discussed. Vitamin D is a group of steroid compounds with a powerful impact on many parts of the human body. This vitamin is believed to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation, inhibit angiogenesis, and stimulate apoptosis. Nowadays, hypovitaminosis D is believed to be a major risk factor in the development of UFs. In many studies vitamin D appears to be a powerful factor against UFs, resulting in inhibition of tumor cell division and a significant reduction in its size, however, the exact role of this compound and its receptor in the pathophysiology of UFs is not fully understood. According to available studies, vitamin D and its analogs seem to be promising, effective, and low-cost compounds in the management of UFs and their clinical symptoms, and the anti-tumor activities of vitamin D play an important role in UF biology. The synergy between vitamin D and selected anti-UF drugs is a very interesting issue which requires further research. Further studies about the biological effect of vitamin D on UF biology are essential. Vitamin D preparations (alone or as a co-drugs) could become new tools in the fight with UFs, with the additional beneficial pleiotropic effect.
Keywords: leiomyoma; uterine fibroid; vitamin D; vitamin D analogs; vitamin D receptor.