Salvia sclarea (SS) is characterized by its valuable essential oils (Eos) and potent biological activities. This study aimed at investigating the phytochemical composition of SS Eos collected in within the same week, from two different regions in Lebanon, Beirut (SS-Bt) and Taanayel (SS-Tl), utilizing GC-MS methods, and to explore their acute and subchronic antidiabetic potentials. Moreover, studying the phytochemical diversity of twenty SS Eos established on our work and literature descriptions in order to recognize the origin of the Lebanese active chemotype(s). The Eos have been obtained by hydro-distillation and identified via GC-MS analyses. Five chemotypes of SS Eos have been identified. The Lebanese Eos, SS-Bt and SS-Tl, studied here have shown evidence to belong to two different chemotypes 1 and 5, respectively. SS-Bt has shown to belong to chemotype 1, which is characterized by high linalool (LL) concentration (average 40.2%). On the other hand, SS-Tl has shown to belong to chemotype 5, which is characterized by high linalyl acetate (LA) concentration (average 50.4%). The acute and subchronic antidiabetic activities of these EOs have been monitored along with LL and LA, in order to find the most active chemotype. Chemotypes 1 (owned to high LL content), present at low altitude places of Lebanon and Poland, has shown significantly higher acute and subchronic antidiabetic activities than that of chemotype 5 (owned to high LA content). In conclusion, Salvia sclarea Eos have shown potential antidiabetic activities, and their Eos might be used in the future as a complementary or an alternative medicine in the management of diabetes and related complications.
Keywords: Salvia sclarea; chemotype; diabetes mellitus; essential oils; phytochemical composition.