Human Norovirus Replication in Human Intestinal Enteroids as Model to Evaluate Virus Inactivation

Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 Aug;24(8):1453-1464. doi: 10.3201/eid2408.180126.


Human noroviruses are a leading cause of epidemic and endemic acute gastroenteritis worldwide and a leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States. Recently, human intestinal enteroids (HIEs) derived from human small intestinal tissue have been shown to support human norovirus replication. We implemented the HIE system in our laboratory and tested the effect of chlorine and alcohols on human norovirus infectivity. Successful replication was observed for 6 norovirus GII genotypes and was dependent on viral load and genotype of the inoculum. GII.4 viruses had higher replication levels than other genotypes. Regardless of concentration or exposure time, alcohols slightly reduced, but did not completely inactivate, human norovirus. In contrast, complete inactivation of the 3 GII.4 viruses occurred at concentrations as low as 50 ppm of chlorine. Taken together, our data confirm the successful replication of human noroviruses in HIEs and their utility as tools to study norovirus inactivation strategies.

Keywords: human intestinal enteroids; inactivation; norovirus; replication; virus inactivation; viruses.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Alcohols / pharmacology
  • Cell Line
  • Chlorine / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Jejunum / cytology*
  • Norovirus / drug effects
  • Norovirus / physiology*
  • Virus Cultivation*
  • Virus Inactivation / drug effects*
  • Virus Replication / drug effects
  • Virus Replication / physiology*


  • Alcohols
  • Chlorine