Association betweenGREM2 gene polymorphism with osteoporosis and osteopenia in postmenopausal women

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2018 Sep;228:238-242. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2018.07.009. Epub 2018 Jul 9.


Objective: Osteoporosis is a civilization disease, in which the dominant symptoms are the loss of bone mass and disturbances in bone structure. Gremlin-2 is one of the BMP (bone morphogenetic proteins) antagonists and participate in osteogenesis and osteoblast differentiation. The aim of the study was to analyze whether the GREM2 gene polymorphism is significantly more common in postmenopausal women than in healthy women and whether it is a predisposing factor for the osteoporosis development.

Study design: The study consisted of 675 unrelated Polish postmenopausal women, including 109 with osteopenia, 333 with osteoporosis and 233 healthy women. The effect of the GREM2 polymorphism on T-score, Z-score, L2L4AM, L2L4YA, L2L4BMD, body mass, BMI, birth weight was statistically evaluated.

Results: Statistical significance was observed between the TT and TC genotypes and also between TT and CC genotypes in the case of birth weight in the control group and the group of women with osteoporosis. Analysis of body mass in women with osteoporosis showed the statistical significance between genotypes TT and CC, TT and TC. Analysis of the frequencies of TT, TC and CC genotypes of the rs4454537 polymorphism of the GREM2 gene showed no statistical significance between studied groups.

Conclusion: Our study found that the most frequent genotype in the group of women with osteopenia and osteoporosis was TC while in the group of healthy women the protective TT genotype was dominant. Hence, it can be postulated that the TT genotype is a protective factor against the development of osteoporosis.

Keywords: GREM2 gene; Gene polymorphism; Menopause; Osteoporosis.

MeSH terms

  • Case-Control Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics*
  • Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / genetics*
  • Polymorphism, Genetic


  • GREM2 protein, human
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins