Safety and efficacy of non-vitamin K oral anticoagulant for atrial fibrillation patients after percutaneous coronary intervention: A bivariate analysis of the PIONEER AF-PCI and RE-DUAL PCI trial

Am Heart J. 2018 Sep;203:17-24. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2018.06.003. Epub 2018 Jun 13.


Background: The tradeoff in safety versus efficacy in substituting a non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant for a vitamin K antagonist (VKA) in the stented atrial fibrillation patient has not been quantitatively evaluated.

Methods: Based on summary data from the PIONEER AF-PCI and RE-DUAL PCI trials, 4 antithrombotic regimens were compared with VKA-based triple therapy: (1) rivaroxaban (riva) 15 mg daily + P2Y12 inhibitor, (2) riva 2.5 mg twice daily + P2Y12 inhibitor + aspirin, (3) dabigatran (dabi) 110 mg twice daily + P2Y12 inhibitor, and (4) dabi 150 mg twice daily + P2Y12 inhibitor. A bivariate model with a noninferiority margin of 1.38 was used to simultaneously assess safety and efficacy. The safety end point was major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding by International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis definitions. The efficacy end point was a thromboembolic event (myocardial infarction, stroke, or systemic embolism), death, or urgent revascularization. The bivariate outcome, a measure of risk difference in the net clinical outcome, was compared between antithrombotic regimens.

Results: All 4 non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant regimens were superior in bleeding and noninferior in efficacy compared with triple therapy with VKA. Riva 15 mg daily and 2.5 mg twice daily were associated with bivariate combined risk reductions of 5.6% (2.3%-8.8%) and 5.5% (2.1%-8.7%), respectively, and dabi 110 mg twice daily and 150 mg twice daily reduced the bivariate risk by 3.8% (0.5%-7.0%) and 6.3% (2.4%-9.8%), respectively.

Conclusions: A bivariate analysis that simultaneously characterizes both risk and benefit demonstrates that riva- and dabi-based regimens were both favorable over VKA plus dual antiplatelet therapy among patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing PCI.

Trial registration: NCT01830543 NCT02164864.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Aged
  • Anticoagulants / administration & dosage*
  • Atrial Fibrillation / complications
  • Atrial Fibrillation / drug therapy*
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Myocardial Infarction / complications
  • Myocardial Infarction / surgery*
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention*
  • Postoperative Care / methods*
  • Stroke / etiology
  • Stroke / prevention & control*
  • Time Factors
  • Vitamin K / antagonists & inhibitors*


  • Anticoagulants
  • Vitamin K

Associated data