Objective: The primary objective of this study was to examine the day-to-day association between physical activity and pain intensity among a sample of patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and the potential moderation of this association by negative cognitive processes.
Methods: In this micro-longitudinal daily diary study, KOA patients (N = 121) completed questionnaires assessing pain (Brief Pain Inventory) and psychosocial functioning (pain catrophizing scale, WOMAC McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index function, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System [PROMIS; anxiety and depression], the Godin-Shephard Leisure-Time Physical Activity questionnaire, the six-minute walking test) and were then asked to report their levels of physical activity and pain intensity once per day for a period of seven days using an electronic diary.
Results: Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that day-to-day increases in physical activity were associated with heightened levels of pain intensity (B = 0.13 SE = 0.03, P < 0.001). In addition, it was revealed that the association between physical activity and pain intensity was moderated by catastrophizing (B = -0.01 SE = 0.002, P < 0.05), with patients scoring higher in catastrophizing showing a relatively stronger link between day-to-day physical activity and increased knee pain. This effect was specific to catastrophizing, as depression and anxiety did not moderate the activity-pain relationship (P > 0.05).
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that increases in daily physical activity are associated with concurrent increases in KOA patients' levels of knee pain, particularly among patients reporting higher levels of pain catastrophizing. These results may have clinical implications for the design and testing of interventions targeted at reducing catastrophizing and increasing physical activity among patients with chronic osteoarthritis pain.
Keywords: Clinical Pain; Osteoarthritis; Physical Activity; Catastrophizing.
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