Skipping breakfast and the risk of coronary artery disease

QJM. 2018 Oct 1;111(10):715-719. doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcy162.


Background/introduction: Nutritional studies have indicated a critical role of dietary habits in development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD).

Aim: We aimed to compare the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in habitual 'breakfast skippers' with those of 'habitual breakfast eaters' in Western part of India. We also planned to compare the cardiometabolic profiles of both the groups.

Design: In this prospective, case-control study of 1607 individuals; 980 were patients of CAD (cases) undergoing various cardiac interventions for revascularisation and other 627 were healthy individuals (controls) who were free from CAD.

Methods: Details of demographics and classical risk factors were collected for all the participants. Subjects were categorized as 'breakfast eater' or 'breakfast skippers' according to their response to the questionnaire. Logistic regression and correlation analysis were performed to assess the independent risk of all the factors and their inter-variable association.

Results: Significantly (P < 0.05) high prevalence of classical risk factors and breakfast skipping habit was found in cases when compared with controls. Diabetes showed the highest odds ratio (7.296; 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.825-11.030; P < 0.0001) for CAD, followed by hypertension (3.756; 95% CI 2.891-4.881; P < 0.0001) and habits of smoking/tobacco/alcohol consumption (1.914; 95% CI 1.528-2.398; P < 0.0001) and breakfast skipping 1.348 (95% CI 1.076-1.689; P < 0.0001). Breakfast skipping emerged as stronger risk factor than obesity and sedentary life style in Indians and showed close association with presence of hypertension.

Discussion/conclusion: Habitual breakfast skippers are at increased risk for development of CAD and hypertension in Western India.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Breakfast*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Coronary Artery Disease / epidemiology*
  • Coronary Artery Disease / prevention & control
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Feeding Behavior*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / complications*
  • India / epidemiology
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Obesity / complications*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires