Hysteroscopic Endometrial Focal Resection followed by Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Device Insertion as a Fertility-Sparing Treatment of Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia and Early Endometrial Cancer: A Retrospective Study

J Minim Invasive Gynecol. May-Jun 2019;26(4):648-656. doi: 10.1016/j.jmig.2018.07.001. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Abstract

Study objective: To evaluate safety and effectiveness of the combination of hysteroscopic endometrial focal resection with levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IA G1 early endometrial cancer (EEC) and atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) in young women to preserve their fertility.

Design: Retrospective case series (Canadian Task Force classification II-3).

Setting: University Federico II, Naples, Italy.

Patients: The medical records of 69 consecutive patients treated from 2007 to 2017 with diagnosis of EEC (n = 14) or AEH (n = 55) meeting inclusion criteria were reviewed.

Interventions: Patients with focal EEC were treated by hysteroscopic resection of the lesion according to Mazzon's technique; patients with AEH were treated by superficial endometrial resection, preserving the basal layer of the endometrium. An LNG-IUD was inserted in all patients after surgery. Patients were followed for 24 months with serial hysteroscopic biopsies.

Measurements and main results: Rates of response, live birth, and recurrence were assessed. Of the 14 patients with EEC, 11 (78.6%) achieved a complete response, 2 (18.2%) of whom had subsequent relapse, 1 (7.1%) showed partial response, whereas 2 (14.3%) were nonresponders (1 stable disease and 1 progression). Of the 55 patients with AEH, 51 (92.7%) achieved a complete response, 2 (3.9%) of whom had subsequent relapse, 3 (5.5%) showed partial response, whereas only 1 (1.8%) was nonresponder with stable disease. Among 25 patients who had removed the LNG-IUD, 10 (40%) gave birth after natural conception in the last 12 months of follow-up.

Conclusion: The combination of hysteroscopic resection with an LNG-IUD as fertility-sparing treatment of EEC and AEH showed similar response and live birth rates compared with those reported in literature for progestins alone, but with considerably lower relapse rate. We advocate the use of this combined approach as an alternative fertility-sparing option in patients with ECC and AEH.

Keywords: Conservative; Endometrioid adenocarcinoma; Progestogen; Recurrence; Regression.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Carcinoma, Endometrioid / drug therapy
  • Carcinoma, Endometrioid / surgery*
  • Endometrial Hyperplasia / drug therapy
  • Endometrial Hyperplasia / surgery*
  • Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery*
  • Endometrium / surgery
  • Female
  • Fertility
  • Fertility Preservation
  • Humans
  • Intrauterine Devices, Medicated
  • Italy / epidemiology
  • Levonorgestrel / administration & dosage*
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology*
  • Organ Sparing Treatments*
  • Pregnancy
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Levonorgestrel