The Air Sac Primordium of Drosophila: A Model for Invasive Development

Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Jul 17;19(7):2074. doi: 10.3390/ijms19072074.


The acquisition of invasive properties preceding tumor metastasis is critical for cancer progression. This phenomenon may result from mutagenic disruption of typical cell function, but recent evidence suggests that cancer cells frequently co-opt normal developmental programs to facilitate invasion as well. The signaling cascades that have been implicated present an obstacle to identifying effective therapeutic targets because of their complex nature and modulatory capacity through crosstalk with other pathways. Substantial efforts have been made to study invasive behavior during organogenesis in several organisms, but another model found in Drosophilamelanogaster has not been thoroughly explored. The air sac primordium (ASP) appears to be a suitable candidate for investigating the genes and morphogens required for invasion due to the distinct overlap in the events that occur during its normal growth and the development of metastatic tumor cells. Among these events are the conversion of larval cells in the trachea into a population of mitotically active cells, reduced cell⁻cell contact along the leading edge of the ASP, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that surrounds the structure. Here, we summarize the development of ASPs and invasive behavior observed therein.

Keywords: Drosophila; air sac primordium; invasive development; tumor metastasis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Air Sacs / embryology
  • Air Sacs / growth & development
  • Air Sacs / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Drosophila melanogaster / embryology
  • Drosophila melanogaster / genetics*
  • Drosophila melanogaster / growth & development
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental*
  • Humans
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Neoplasms / genetics
  • Neoplasms / pathology
  • Organogenesis / genetics*
  • Signal Transduction / genetics
  • Trachea / embryology
  • Trachea / growth & development
  • Trachea / metabolism*