Aldosterone Suppression by Dexamethasone in Patients With KCNJ5-Mutated Aldosterone-Producing Adenoma

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Sep 1;103(9):3477-3485. doi: 10.1210/jc.2018-00738.

Abstract

Context: Aldosterone biosynthesis is regulated principally by ACTH and gene mutations as well as by angiotensin II and serum potassium. In addition, previous studies have reported the potential effects of KCNJ5 mutations in aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) on cardiovascular diseases. However, responsiveness to ACTH in APAs according to potassium inwardly rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 5 (KCNJ5) mutations remains unknown.

Objective: To investigate KCNJ5 genotype-specific differences in aldosterone biosynthesis in response to ACTH stimulation.

Design and setting: A cross-sectional study through retrieval of clinical records.

Participants: One hundred forty-one patients aged ≥20 years with APA were examined.

Main outcome measures: Associations between KCNJ5 mutations and clinical parameters reflecting the renin-angiotensin system [saline infusion test (SIT)] and ACTH pathways [dexamethasone suppression test (DST)].

Results: KCNJ5 mutations were detected in 107 cases. In the crude comparison, patients with mutations in KCNJ5 had higher plasma aldosterone concentrations (PACs) both at baseline and after the SIT. PAC after the DST showed a significant inverse association with KCNJ5 genotypes after controlling for age, sex, tumor size, and PAC after the SIT. Immunohistochemical analysis of 101 cases revealed more abundant immunoreactivity of CYP11B1 and CYP17 in the KCNJ5-mutated group than in the KCNJ5 wild-type group.

Conclusion: This report of marked suppression of PAC by dexamethasone in patients with KCNJ5-mutated APAs indicates that such APAs respond to endogenous ACTH more readily than APAs in nonmutated cases. Further molecular and epidemiologic studies are required to validate our results and clarify the clinical effectiveness of the DST for predicting KCNJ5 mutations before adrenalectomy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Adrenocortical Adenoma / drug therapy*
  • Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics
  • Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism
  • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood
  • Adult
  • Aldosterone / biosynthesis*
  • Aldosterone / blood
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dexamethasone / administration & dosage*
  • Female
  • G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels / genetics
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mutation
  • Renin-Angiotensin System / drug effects
  • Treatment Outcome

Substances

  • Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
  • G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels
  • KCNJ5 protein, human
  • Aldosterone
  • Dexamethasone
  • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone