Therapeutic effect of vitamin B3 on hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and DNA damage in alloxan induced diabetic rat model

Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Sep;105:1223-1231. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.06.085. Epub 2018 Jun 22.


Evidences in the form of experimental analysis and scientific investigations suggest that oxidative stress embody an imperative role in the onset and progression of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Aberrant elevation in levels of free radicals, as observed upon disease onset, and the subsequent reduction in anti-oxidant defenses is pernicious to metabolic enzymes and cellular organelles. Niacin (Vitamin B3) is an essential nutrient for humans and is considered to be an important food additive for animals too. This research was conducted to examine the effect of nutraceutical antioxidant on diabetic environment. This important member of Vitamin B complex is a forerunner of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and also nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), both of them serving as coenzymes for several metabolic enzymes. This study reports the effects of niacin supplementation in alloxan induced diabetic rats divided into five groups. Diabetes induced rats were further treated with niacin at two doses (10 and 15 mg /kg body weight) and compared with a control set of diabetes without treatment. Niacin treatment showed recovery in almost all parameters in a dose reliant pattern. A notable decline in oxidative stress parameters with reductions in fasting blood glucose levels was observed. Histological studies reveal damage recovery in the liver as well as kidney tissues. A notable amount of recovery was observed in cellular DNA damage. As a deduction, it is advocated that dietary niacin supplementation might help in reducing problems associated with diabetes. A probable mechanism pertaining to the action of niacin is proposed as well.

Keywords: Alloxan; Diabetes; Hyperglycemia; Vitamin B3.

MeSH terms

  • Alloxan / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Blood Glucose / drug effects
  • DNA Damage / drug effects*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / chemically induced*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / chemically induced
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Hyperglycemia / drug therapy*
  • Liver / drug effects
  • Male
  • Niacinamide / pharmacology*
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar


  • Antioxidants
  • Blood Glucose
  • Niacinamide
  • Alloxan