We investigated the association of clinical variables with TBS at baseline in the bone health sub-cohort of the VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL). Lower TBS was associated with female sex, aging, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, SSRI use, high alcohol intake, and presence of diabetes; there was a trend towards significance between lower TBS and history of fragility fractures.
Introduction: We investigated whether TBS differs by sex, race, body mass index (BMI), and other clinical variables.
Methods: The VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL) is determining effects of vitamin D3 and/or omega-3 fatty acid (FA) supplements in reducing risks of cancer and cardiovascular disease. In the VITAL: Effects on Bone Structure/Architecture ancillary study, effects of these interventions on bone will be investigated. Here, we examine the associations of clinical risk factors with TBS assessments at baseline in the bone health sub-cohort, comprised of 672 participants (369 men and 303 women), mean (± SD) age 63.5 ± 6.0 years; BMI ≤ 37 kg/m2, no bisphosphonates within 2 years or other bone active medications within 1 year.
Results: TBS was greater in men than women (1.311 vs. 1.278, P < 0.001) and lower with elevated BMIs (P < 0.001), higher age (P = 0.004), diabetes (P = 0.008), SSRI use (P = 0.044), and high alcohol intake (P = 0.009). There was a trend for history of fragility fractures (P = 0.072), and lower TBS. TBS did not vary when analyzed by race, smoking, history of falls, and multivitamin or caffeine use.
Conclusions: Lower TBS was associated with female sex, aging, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, SSRI use, alcohol use, and presence of diabetes; there was a trend between lower TBS and history of fragility fractures. TBS may be useful clinically to assess structural changes that may be associated with fractures among patients who are overweight or obese, those on SSRIs, or with diabetes. Ongoing follow-up studies will clarify the effects of supplemental vitamin D3 and/or FA's on TBS and other bone health measures.
Trial registration: NCT01747447.
Keywords: Fracture; Osteoporosis; SSRI; TBS; Trabecular bone score.