Previous research has identified trauma-related shame as a mediator of the association between negative social reactions to sexual assault disclosure and psychological distress, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. However, few studies have considered protective factors that may mitigate the effects of trauma-related shame. This study evaluated trauma-coping self-efficacy and trauma-related shame as mediators of the association between negative reactions to sexual assault disclosure and PTSD symptoms. It was hypothesized that both trauma-coping self-efficacy and trauma-related shame would mediate this association. One hundred thirty-two psychology undergraduates, who reported experiencing sexual assault and had disclosed the sexual assault to at least 1 other person, completed self-report measures of history of sexual assault, negative social reactions, trauma-related shame, trauma-coping-self-efficacy, and PTSD symptoms online. The hypothesized mediation model was evaluated via a series of regressions and included gender and history of sexual assault as covariates. Participants reported significant histories of sexual assault and elevated symptoms of PTSD. Both trauma-related shame and trauma-coping self-efficacy significantly mediated the association between negative social reactions and PTSD symptoms. Trauma-coping self-efficacy and trauma-related shame are significant intervening variables with regard to the association between negative social reactions and PTSD symptoms. These malleable points of therapeutic intervention warrant additional research and highlight the need for clinical practice that explicitly addresses shame and enhances coping self-efficacy among undergraduates who disclose sexual assault. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).