Background: Neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBD) are administered intra-operatively to facilitate intubation and to achieve muscle relaxation for surgical procedures. Incomplete reversal of NMBD can lead to adverse events in the postoperative period. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may be at higher risk of complications related to the use of NMBD. The objectives of this systematic review were to determine whether: 1) OSA patients are at higher risk of postoperative complications from the use of NMBD than non-OSA patients, and 2) the choice of NMBD reversal agent affects the risk of postoperative complications in OSA patients.
Methods: A literature search of multiple databases was conducted up to April 2017. The inclusion criteria were: (1) adult surgical patients (≥18 years old) with OSA diagnosed by polysomnography, or history, or suspected by screening questionnaire; (2) patients who were given NMBD and/or NMBD reversal agents intraoperatively; (3) reports on postoperative adverse events, particularly respiratory events were available; (4) published studies were in English; and (5) RCTs or observational cohort studies. The quality of evidence was determined by the Oxford Center for Evidence Based Medicine levels of evidence.
Results: Out of 4123 studies, five studies (2 RCTs and 3 observational studies) including 1126 patients were deemed eligible. These studies were heterogeneous precluding a meta-analysis of the results. Two of three studies (1 RCT, 2 observational studies) reported that OSA patients given NMBD may be at higher risk of developing postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) like hypoxemia, residual neuromuscular blockade or respiratory failure compared to non-OSA patients. Two studies (1 RCT, 1 observational study) reported that OSA patients who were reversed with sugammadex vs. neostigmine had less PPCs and chest radiographic changes, but the quality of the included studies was Oxford level of evidence: low to moderate.
Conclusions: OSA patients who receive intraoperative NMBD may be at higher risk for postoperative hypoxemia, respiratory failure and residual neuromuscular blockade compared to non-OSA patients. There is some, albeit very limited evidence that NMBD reversal with sugammadex may be associated with less PPCs than neostigmine in patients with OSA. More high-quality studies are needed.
Keywords: Neuromuscular blocking agents; Obstructive sleep apnea; Postoperative pulmonary complications; Residual neuromuscular blockade; Reversal of neuromuscular blocking agents.