Objectives: Copeptin, a surrogate marker for vasopressin, is elevated in participants with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. Whereas adults with type 1 diabetes also demonstrate elevated copeptin concentrations and IR compared to controls without diabetes, the relationship between copeptin and IR in type 1 diabetes is unclear.
Methods: Participants with (n=209) and without (n=244) type 1 diabetes in the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes (CACTI) study were assessed for serum copeptin, vitals, estimated glomerular filtration rate, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, glycated hemoglobin and lipid panels. Estimated insulin sensitivity (eIS) was calculated by validated equations in participants with and without type 1 diabetes. The relationships among copeptin, IR, waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were examined with unadjusted and adjusted linear regression models.
Results: Copeptin was correlated with eIS (R=-0.17, R2=0.029), WC (R=0.16, R2=0.026) and BMI (R=0.22, R2=0.048) for type 1 diabetes and with eIS (R=-0.37, R2=0.14), WC (R=0.40, R2=0.16) and BMI (R=0.25, R2=0.063) in non-type 1 diabetes. In multivariable analysis, copeptin correlated with total cholesterol (beta±SE: -0.12±0.04, p=0.008) and low-density lipoprotein (beta±SE: -0.11±0.04, p=0.01) in type 1 diabetes. In non-type 1 diabetes, copeptin was associated with WC (beta±SE: 0.14±0.04, p=0.0024), BMI (beta±SE: 0.13±0.04, p=0.007) and eIS (beta±SE: -0.14±0.04, p=0.0013).
Conclusions: Copeptin does not correlate with markers of IR in type 1 diabetes but strongly correlates in non-type 1 diabetes. Thus, elevated vasopressin activity and IR appear to be independent risk factors for vascular complications in type 1 diabetes.
Keywords: copeptin; copeptine; diabète de type 1; insulin resistance; insulino-résistance; type 1 diabetes; vasopressin; vasopressine.
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