For nearly a century the use of antibiotics to treat infectious diseases has benefited human and animal health. In recent years there has been an increase in the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, in part attributed to the overuse of compounds in clinical and farming settings. The genus Listeria currently comprises 17 recognized species found throughout the environment. Listeria monocytogenes is the etiological agent of listeriosis in humans and many vertebrate species, including birds, whereas Listeria ivanovii causes infections mainly in ruminants. L. monocytogenes is the third-most-common cause of death from food poisoning in humans, and infection occurs in at-risk groups, including pregnant women, newborns, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals.