Background: During cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, delivery of cardioplegia solution to achieve electromechanical cardiac quiescence is obligatory. The addition of lidocaine to cardioplegia has advantages, although its consequences at a molecular level remain unclear. We performed whole-genome RNA sequencing of the human left ventricular (LV) myocardium to elucidate the differences between whole-blood (WB) cardioplegia with and without addition of lidocaine (LC) on gene expression.
Methods: We prospectively enrolled 130 patients undergoing aortic valve replacement surgery. Patients received high-potassium blood cardioplegia either with (n = 37) or without (n = 93) lidocaine. The LV apex was biopsied at baseline, and after an average of 74 minutes of cold cardioplegic arrest. We performed differential gene expression analysis for 18,258 genes between these 2 groups. Clinical and demographic variables were adjusted in the model. Gene ontology (GO) and network enrichment analysis of the retained genes were performed using g:Profiler and Cytoscape.
Results: A total of 1,298 genes were differentially expressed between cardioplegic treatments. Compared with the WB group, genes upregulated in the LC group were identified by network enrichment to play a protective role in ischemic injury by inhibiting apoptosis, increasing transferrin endocytosis, and increasing cell viability. Downregulated genes in the LC group were identified to play a role in inflammatory diseases, oxygen transport, and neutrophil aggregation.
Conclusions: The addition of lidocaine to cardioplegia had pronounced effects on a molecular level with genes responsible for decreased inflammation, reduced intracellular calcium binding, enhanced antiapoptotic protection, augmented oxygen accessibility through transferrins, and increased cell viability showing measurable differences.
Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.