A review of measurement methodologies and their applications to environmental 90 Sr

J Environ Radioact. 2018 Dec;192:321-333. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2018.07.013. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Abstract

The high fission yield product 90Sr has been released into the environment in large amounts due to nuclear weapon tests, nuclear power plant accidents, and nuclear fuel reprocessing industries. It is a long half-life radionuclide (28.9 y), with serious consequences to human health; hence, it is desirable to perform routine monitoring of 90Sr in environmental samples. Many 90Sr radiometric methods have been developed in the past decades, which generally require complicated separation and purification steps with a relatively long analytical time. Moreover, some nominally rapid methods usually have high method detection limits, making them unsuitable for the environmental samples with ultra-low 90Sr levels. In this review, some rapid and practical methods for 90Sr routine monitoring are summarized. Different sample pretreatments and major purification procedures for 90Sr developed in recent years, such as variable digestion methods and extraction chromatography using Sr resin or DGA resin, are especially described. Additionally, four conventional and widely used β spectrometric and mass spectrometric methods are demonstrated. Finally, 90Sr evaluations focusing on contaminated soil and seawater samples collected after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, and 90Sr application as tracers for environmental behavior are also reviewed.

Keywords: (90)Sr; Environmental monitoring; Mass spectrometry; Nuclear accident; Tracer application.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Nuclear Weapons
  • Radiation Monitoring / methods*
  • Radioactive Pollutants / analysis*
  • Strontium Radioisotopes / analysis*

Substances

  • Radioactive Pollutants
  • Strontium Radioisotopes
  • Strontium-90