Recent National Trends and Outcomes in Total Ankle Arthroplasty in the United States

J Foot Ankle Surg. 2018 Nov-Dec;57(6):1092-1095. doi: 10.1053/j.jfas.2018.03.037. Epub 2018 Jul 18.


Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) is an evolving option for treating ankle arthritis. We assessed the national trends in usage and perioperative outcomes of TAA in the United States. International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD-9), codes were used to search the National Hospital Discharge Survey database for TAA from 1997 to 2010. Patient demographics, comorbidities, hospitalization length, discharge disposition, blood transfusion, lower extremity deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and mortality data were gathered. Trends were evaluated using linear regression with Pearson's correlation coefficient, and statistical comparisons were performed using Student's t test and z-test for proportions with significance at p = .05. We identified 120 patients with TAA. TAA demonstrated a positive correlation with time (r = 0.57), significantly increasing from 2.4 cases per 100,000 admissions from 1997 to 2003 to 3.5 cases per 100,000 from 2004 to 2010 (p = .04). The mean age was 57.8 (range 19 to 83) years. The mean number of comorbidities was 4.5 (range 1 to ≥7). Although patient age remained stable (p = .21), the mean number of comorbidities significantly increased from 4.0 from 1997 to 2003 to 4.8 from 2004 to 2010 (p = .02); 8 patients (6.7%) had diabetes, 71 (59.2%) had primary osteoarthritis, and 35 (29.2%) had posttraumatic arthropathy. The mean length of stay significantly decreased from 3.1 to 2.3 days (p = .03). Three patients (2.5%) required a blood transfusion. No deep vein thrombosis or PE was diagnosed. No patients died during the operative admission; 95 patients (87%) were discharged home and 14 (13%) required a skilled rehabilitation facility. Discharge patterns showed no significant change with time (p = .59). Usage of TAA in the United States has increased nearly 50% over the past 14 years. TAA was associated with shorter hospitalization, infrequent rehabilitation facility requirements, and few perioperative complications.

Keywords: national hospital discharge survey; outcomes; total ankle arthroplasty; trends; usage.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Arthroplasty, Replacement, Ankle / statistics & numerical data*
  • Databases, Factual
  • Female
  • Hospitalization / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Joint Diseases / diagnosis
  • Joint Diseases / epidemiology
  • Joint Diseases / surgery*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Treatment Outcome
  • United States
  • Young Adult