Purpose: Aortic occlusion (AO) increases proximal perfusion and may improve rates of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The objective of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic effects of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and AO by REBOA on patients in traumatic cardiac arrest.
Methods: Patients admitted between February 2013 and May 2017 at a tertiary center who suffered traumatic arrest, had an arterial line placed during resuscitation, and received CPR and REBOA which were included. In-hospital CPR data were obtained from videography. Arterial waveforms were recorded at 240 Hz.
Results: 11 consecutive patients were included, 82% male; mean (± SD) age 37 ± 19 years. 55% suffered blunt trauma and the remaining penetrating injuries. 64% arrested out of hospital. During compressions with AO, the mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 70 ± 22 mmHg, mean arterial pressure (MAP) 43 ± 19 mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 26 ± 17 mmHg. Nine (82%) had ROSC, with eight having multiple periods of ROSC and arrest in the initial period. In-hospital mortality was 82%. Cardiac ultrasonography was used during arrest in 73%. In two patients with arterial line data before and after AO, SBP (mmHg) improved from 51 to 73 and 55 to 96 during arrest after AO.
Conclusions: High-quality chest compressions coupled with aortic occlusion may generate adequate perfusion pressures to increase the rate of ROSC. New technology capable of transducing central arterial pressure may help us to understand the effectiveness of CPR with and without aortic occlusion. REBOA may be a useful adjunct to high-quality chest compressions during arrest.
Keywords: Aortic occlusion; Cardiac arrest; Hemodynamics; Hemorrhagic shock; REBOA; Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta.