The dynamic shape of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a reflection of its wide variety of critical cell biological functions. Consequently, perturbation of ER-shaping proteins can cause a range of human phenotypes. Here, we describe three affected children (from two consanguineous families) who carry homozygous loss-of-function mutations in LNPK (previously known as KIAA1715); this gene encodes lunapark, which is proposed to serve as a curvature-stabilizing protein within tubular three-way junctions of the ER. All individuals presented with severe psychomotor delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, epilepsy, and corpus callosum hypoplasia, and two of three showed mild cerebellar hypoplasia and atrophy. Consistent with a proposed role in neurodevelopmental disease, LNPK was expressed during brain development in humans and mice and was present in neurite-like processes in differentiating human neural progenitor cells. Affected cells showed the absence of full-length lunapark, aberrant ER structures, and increased luminal mass density. Together, our results implicate the ER junction stabilizer lunapark in establishing the corpus callosum.
Keywords: KIAA1715; corpus callosum hypoplasia; endoplasmic reticulum; epilepsy; human genetics; hypotonia; lunapark; organelle morphology; recessive disease.
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