Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi C causes enteric (paratyphoid) fever in humans. Its presentation can range from asymptomatic infections of the blood stream to gastrointestinal or urinary tract infection or even a fatal septicemia . Paratyphi C is very rare in Europe and North America except for occasional travelers from South and East Asia or Africa, where the disease is more common [2, 3]. However, early 20th-century observations in Eastern Europe [3, 4] suggest that Paratyphi C enteric fever may once have had a wide-ranging impact on human societies. Here, we describe a draft Paratyphi C genome (Ragna) recovered from the 800-year-old skeleton (SK152) of a young woman in Trondheim, Norway. Paratyphi C sequences were recovered from her teeth and bones, suggesting that she died of enteric fever and demonstrating that these bacteria have long caused invasive salmonellosis in Europeans. Comparative analyses against modern Salmonella genome sequences revealed that Paratyphi C is a clade within the Para C lineage, which also includes serovars Choleraesuis, Typhisuis, and Lomita. Although Paratyphi C only infects humans, Choleraesuis causes septicemia in pigs and boar  (and occasionally humans), and Typhisuis causes epidemic swine salmonellosis (chronic paratyphoid) in domestic pigs [2, 3]. These different host specificities likely evolved in Europe over the last ∼4,000 years since the time of their most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) and are possibly associated with the differential acquisitions of two genomic islands, SPI-6 and SPI-7. The tMRCAs of these bacterial clades coincide with the timing of pig domestication in Europe .
Keywords: Ancient DNA; Salmonella enterica; enteric fever; genomic stability; historical infections; host jump; pan-genome; paratyphoid fever; population genomics; tMRCA of bacterial pathogens.
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