To obtain a highly specific reagent that could be utilized for ultrastructural localization of Na,K-ATPase, monoclonal antibodies were produced using microsomal preparations of outer renal medulla of dog and rat enriched for Na,K-ATPase. The monoclonal antibody (C62.4) raised against dog antigen, immunoprecipitated a 96,000 Dalton protein from membranes labeled either with 35S methionine or 3H NAB ouabain. Na,K-ATPase, Na-ATPase, and KpNPPase activity were 25, 60, and 100% maximal after reaction with C62.4. Na,K-ATPase activated with SDS was inhibited, but Na,K-ATPase in tight right-side-out membrane vesicles was not. C62.4 inhibited ouabain binding in the presence of Na,K, and Mg, but did not inhibit ouabain binding in the presence of Mg and Pi. Labeling of broken membranes was readily seen using C62.4 labeled with colloidal gold. Intact right-side-out vesicles showed no evidence of labeling, demonstrating that the antibody is directed to an epitope of the cytoplasmic domain of the enzyme. Differential localization of C62.4 along the nephron was identified. Glomeruli showed no significant antibody binding except by occasional cells in the mesangial regions. Only basal lateral membranes of cells from all tubule segments labeled with C62.4. There was no evidence of specific apical labeling. The thick ascending limb of Henle's loop demonstrated the greatest concentration of antibody binding. In the cortical and outer medullary collecting duct, only principal cells showed abundant antibody binding. Intercalated cells showed no detectable evidence of antibody binding on any surface. These studies demonstrate that Na,K-ATPase is localized exclusively to the basal lateral membrane of renal tubular epithelial cells and varies in density and distribution in different nephron segments.