Local field potentials (LFP) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) recorded during walking may provide clues for determining the function of the STN during gait and also, may be used as biomarker to steer adaptive brain stimulation devices. Here, we present LFP recordings from an implanted sensing neurostimulator (Medtronic Activa PC + S) during walking and rest with and without stimulation in 10 patients with Parkinson's disease and electrodes placed bilaterally in the STN. We also present recordings from two of these patients recorded with externalized leads. We analyzed changes in overall frequency power, bilateral connectivity, high beta frequency oscillatory characteristics and gait-cycle related oscillatory activity. We report that deep brain stimulation improves gait parameters. High beta frequency power (20-30 Hz) and bilateral oscillatory connectivity are reduced during gait, while the attenuation of high beta power is absent during stimulation. Oscillatory characteristics are affected in a similar way. We describe a reduction in overall high beta burst amplitude and burst lifetimes during gait as compared to rest off stimulation. Investigating gait cycle related oscillatory dynamics, we found that alpha, beta and gamma frequency power is modulated in time during gait, locked to the gait cycle. We argue that these changes are related to movement induced artifacts and that these issues have important implications for similar research.
Keywords: Beta rhythm; Deep brain stimulation; Gait; Oscillations; Subthalamic nucleus.