The Impact of Uremic Toxins on Cerebrovascular and Cognitive Disorders

Toxins (Basel). 2018 Jul 22;10(7):303. doi: 10.3390/toxins10070303.


Individuals at all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a higher risk of developing cognitive disorders and dementia. Stroke is also highly prevalent in this population and is associated with a higher risk of neurological deterioration, in-hospital mortality, and poor functional outcomes. Evidence from in vitro studies and in vivo animal experiments suggests that accumulation of uremic toxins may contribute to the pathogenesis of stroke and amplify vascular damage, leading to cognitive disorders and dementia. This review summarizes current evidence on the mechanisms by which uremic toxins may favour the occurrence of cerebrovascular diseases and neurological complications in CKD.

Keywords: cognitive disorders; dementia; stroke; uremic toxins.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Vessels / drug effects
  • Blood Vessels / physiology
  • Brain / blood supply
  • Brain / drug effects
  • Cerebrovascular Disorders*
  • Cognition Disorders*
  • Humans
  • Microcirculation / drug effects
  • Toxins, Biological / toxicity*
  • Uremia*


  • Toxins, Biological