Overview of pharmacological activities of Andrographis paniculata and its major compound andrographolide

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2019;59(sup1):S17-S29. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2018.1501657. Epub 2018 Sep 10.


Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) is a medicinal plant traditionally used as anti-inflammation and anti-bacteria herb. Andrographolide, the major active component of A. paniculata, exhibits diverse pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-diabetes, and other activities. In this article, we comprehensively review the therapeutic potential of A. paniculata and andrographolide focusing on the mechanisms of action and clinical application. We systemically discuss the structure-activity relationship of andrographolide and derivatives. Despite the various pharmacological activities and formula of A. paniculata and andrographolide, we propose further development of more structural derivatives of andrographolide with reduced toxicity and increased therapeutic efficacy is still needed for the clinical application of this ancient mighty herb and its major component.

Keywords: andrographolide; mechanisms of action; structure-activity-relationship.

MeSH terms

  • Andrographis / chemistry*
  • Animals
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology
  • Antimalarials / pharmacology
  • Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Diterpenes / pharmacology*
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppression Therapy
  • Inflammation / drug therapy*
  • Phytotherapy*
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Plants, Medicinal / chemistry
  • Structure-Activity Relationship


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antimalarials
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Diterpenes
  • Plant Extracts
  • andrographolide