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Review
. 2018 Nov;119:306-311.
doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.07.141. Epub 2018 Jul 21.

Boosting Half-Life and Effector Functions of Therapeutic Antibodies by Fc-engineering: An Interaction-Function Review

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Review

Boosting Half-Life and Effector Functions of Therapeutic Antibodies by Fc-engineering: An Interaction-Function Review

Marcela Helena Gambim Fonseca et al. Int J Biol Macromol. .

Abstract

Due mainly to their high level of affinity and specificity, therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been frequently selected as treatment for cancer, autoimmune or chronic inflammatory diseases. Despite the increasing number of mAbs and related products in the biopharmaceutical market, they are still expensive, can cause undesired side effects, and eventually cause resistance. Antibody engineering, which emerged to overcome limitations faced by mAb therapy, has supported the development of modified mAbs for immunotherapy. As part of this approach, researchers have invested in obtaining antibody fragments, as well as in Fc region modifications, since interactions with Fc receptors influence an antibody's half-life and mechanism of action. Thus, Fc engineering results in antibodies with more desirable characteristics and functions for which they are intended, creating "fit-for-purpose" antibodies with reduced side effects. Furthermore, aglycosylated antibodies, produced in bacterial cultivation, have been an alternative to create new effector functional human immunotherapeutics, while reducing mAb therapy costs. This review highlights some features that enhance mAb performance, related to the improvement of antibody half-life and effector responses by both Fc-engineering and glycoengineering.

Keywords: Antibody Fc region; Fc gamma receptor; Fc-engineering; Monoclonal antibody; Neonatal Fc receptor; Serum half-life.

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