Tissue from 13 cervical cancers and pelvic or para-aortic lymph nodes from the same patient were evaluated by deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization with a human papillomavirus type 16 deoxyribonucleic acid probe for the presence of human papillomavirus-related deoxyribonucleic acid sequences. Twelve of the primary malignancies were squamous cancers and one was an adenocarcinoma. Eight of the primary tumors contained human papillomavirus type 16 deoxyribonucleic acid sequences, and five contained viral sequences closely related to human papillomavirus type 16. Histopathologic diagnosis confirmed malignant cells in six of 13 lymph nodes; three of these specimens contained human papillomavirus type 16 sequences while three had human papillomavirus type 16-related sequences. One lymph node that failed to show malignant cells also contained human papillomavirus type 16 deoxyribonucleic acid. The remaining lymph nodes did not contain malignant cells by either histologic examination or deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization. The human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid sequences in the lymph nodes were similar to those in the matched primary cancer in all cases. These data provide further evidence implicating human papillomavirus in the etiology of cervical cancer.