Strength Training Session Induces Important Changes on Physiological, Immunological, and Inflammatory Biomarkers

J Immunol Res. 2018 Jun 26:2018:9675216. doi: 10.1155/2018/9675216. eCollection 2018.


Strength exercise is a strategy applied in sports and physical training processes. It may induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The hypertrophy is dependent on the eccentric muscle actions and on the inflammatory response. Here, we evaluate the physiological, immunological, and inflammatory responses induced by a session of strength training with a focus on predominance of the eccentric muscle actions. Twenty volunteers were separated into two groups: the untrained group (UTG) and the trained group (TG). Both groups hold 4 sets of leg press, knee extensor, and leg curl at 65% of personal one-repetition maximum (1RM), 90 s of recovery, and 2conc/3eccen of duration of execution in each repetition. Blood samples were collected immediately before and after, 2 hours after, and 24 h after the end of the exercise session. The single session of strength training elevated the heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), visual analog scale (VAS), and lactate blood level in UTG and TG. Creatine kinase (CK) levels were higher at 2 and 24 h after the end of the exercise in UTG and, in TG, only at 24 h. The number of white blood cells (WBC) and neutrophils increased in UTG and TG, post and 2 h after exercise. Lymphocytes increased postexercise but reduced 2 h after exercise in both groups, while the number of monocytes increased only immediately after the exercise session in UTG and TG. The strength training session elevated the levels of apelin and fatty acid-binding proteins-3 (FABP3) in both groups and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in TG. The single exercise session was capable of inducing elevated HR, RPE, lactate level, and CK levels. This protocol changed the count/total number of circulating immune cells in both groups (UTG and TG) and also increased the level of plasmatic apelin, BDNF, and FLTS1 only in TG and FABP3 myokines in both groups.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Apelin / blood
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor / metabolism
  • Creatine Kinase / blood
  • Exercise / physiology*
  • Fatty Acid Binding Protein 3 / metabolism
  • Heart Rate
  • Humans
  • Hypertrophy
  • Lactic Acid / blood
  • Lymphocytes / pathology*
  • Male
  • Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism
  • Muscle, Skeletal / pathology*
  • Teaching
  • Visual Analog Scale
  • Young Adult


  • Apelin
  • Biomarkers
  • Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
  • FABP3 protein, human
  • Fatty Acid Binding Protein 3
  • Lactic Acid
  • Creatine Kinase