Background: There is no standard method for the surgical treatment of acromioclavicular (AC) joint separations. Current techniques have associated complications, including need for device removal, coracoid fracture, and inadequate reduction.
Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of an internal splint technique without graft augmentation or rigid fixation to treat acute Rockwood type IV and V AC joint injuries.
Study design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.
Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed of 26 patients who underwent a novel internal splint fixation technique between 2011 and 2016. Patients had type IV (n = 2) and type V (n = 24) acute AC separations. The mean time to surgery was 13.7 days (range, 1-28 days). The surgical technique included an open approach with coracoclavicular suture and tape fixation and AC suture fixation. Range of motion, strength, and radiographs were evaluated after surgery. Patient follow-up included the DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) questionnaire at a mean 3.3 years postoperatively (range, 6 months-8.6 years). DASH questionnaires were obtained for all patients via email. Patients were also surveyed on cosmetic appearance and willingness to undergo the operation again.
Results: All patients regained full strength and range of motion following surgery. All postoperative radiographs demonstrated well-maintained reduction of the AC joint. The mean DASH score was 3.4 at final follow-up, and 23 of 26 respondents were satisfied with their postoperative shoulder appearance. There were no reoperations, and all patients stated that they would have the operation again given the same circumstances.
Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate a reliable new technique for acute fixation of type IV or V AC joint injuries via an internal splint construct. This technique enables reduction in the coronal and sagittal planes without the need for graft augmentation or a rigid implant, allowing healing of the coracoclavicular and AC ligaments.
Keywords: DASH; acromioclavicular separation; acute repair; coracoclavicular repair; internal splint; operative technique; patient-reported outcomes; types IV/V.