Dementia-like syndromes are rare manifestations of Lyme neuroborreliosis. The clinical patterns are summarized using our own cases and case reports from the literature, which were diagnosed as definite Lyme neuroborreliosis according to the European guidelines. The cases disclose signs of subcortical dementia that occur more rapidly than in patients suffering from primary dementia. Gait disturbances early in the disease course is another frequently observed characteristic feature. The response to 2-4 weeks of antibiotic treatment with ceftriaxone was excellent. There were no indications for a prolonged antibiotic treatment. It is essential to be aware of this manifestation of Lyme neuroborreliosis, because early antibiotic treatment will prevent permanent sequelae that may occur throughout the further course of the untreated disease.
Keywords: Antibiotic treatment; Cognitive impairment; Lyme borreliosis; Lyme disease; Normal pressure hydrocephalus.