Dual compartmental targeting of cell cycle and angiogenic kinases in colorectal cancer models

Anticancer Drugs. 2018 Oct;29(9):827-838. doi: 10.1097/CAD.0000000000000673.


Cancer is a disease caused by several factors characterized by uncontrolled cell division, growth, and survival. ENMD-2076, is a novel orally active small molecule multikinase inhibitor targeting angiogenesis, proliferation, and the cell cycle. It is selectively active against the mitotic kinases aurora A and B, and kinases responsible for angiogenesis including VEGFR2/KDR and FGFR1 and 2. ENMD-2076 has been shown to inhibit tumor growth and prevent angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo in preclinical cancer models. Moreover, in a phase I trial, ENMD-2076 was well tolerated, exhibited a linear pharmacokinetic profile, and showed a promising antitumor activity in a number of solid tumors. In this study, we show that ENMD-2076 has antiproliferative effects, causes cell cycle arrest, and has activity in preclinical models of colorectal cancer (CRC), including patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. Forty-seven human CRC cell lines were exposed in vitro to ENMD-2076 and analyzed for effects on cell cycle, apoptosis, and downstream effector proteins. The drug was then tested against 20 human CRC PDX models to further evaluate in-vivo antitumor activity. We show that ENMD-2076 exhibits a broad range of activity against a large panel of CRC cell lines with varying molecular characteristics. Mechanistically, ENMD-2076 exposure resulted in a G2/M cell cycle arrest, an increase in aneuploidy, and cell death in responsive cell lines. In addition, ENMD-2076 treatment resulted in a promising antitumor activity in CRC PDX models. These results support the continued development of ENMD-2076 in CRC including further exploration of rational combinations.

MeSH terms

  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Apoptosis / drug effects
  • Cell Cycle / drug effects
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / enzymology
  • Female
  • G2 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints / drug effects
  • Humans
  • M Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints / drug effects
  • Mice
  • Mice, Nude
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Pyrazoles / pharmacology*
  • Pyrimidines / pharmacology*
  • Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays


  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • ENMD 2076
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • Pyrazoles
  • Pyrimidines