Breast cancer is one of the most malignant diseases in women worldwide. Serum microRNAs (miRNAs), with the characteristics of high sensitivity and specificity, have recently attracted more attentions to serve as potential biomarkers for tumor diseases. In this study, 194 breast cancer patients' serum samples were collected before surgery and enrolled into different groups based on their diagnostic information. To search for breast cancer diagnostic biomarkers, serum miRNAs were screened by microarray in pooled samples of healthy volunteers and breast cancer patients in different clinical stages. The miRNAs were further verified in each individual patient's serum samples in diagnostic and predictive sets. The serum level of miR-1915-3p was upregulated and miR-455-3p was downregulated significantly in breast cancer patients compared with healthy volunteers. Furthermore, the patients with infiltrating carcinoma or lymph node metastasis had a higher serum level of miR-1915-3p and lower serum level of miR-455-3p than patients with the carcinoma in situ or patients without lymph node metastasis. ROC analysis suggested that miR-1915-3p and miR-455-3p had the potential as a promising serum diagnostic and predictive biomarkers of breast cancer. miR-1915-3p was over-expressed in certain human breast cancer cells. Functional experiments in vitro showed that miR-1915-3p enhanced cell proliferative and migrational abilities. Overexpression of miR-1915-3p repressed target gene DUSP3 and activated ERK1/2. Collectively, this study provided a new insight that miR-1915-3p might play a role in the development of breast cancer and that serum miR-1915-3p and miR-455-3p could serve as diagnostic and predictive biomarkers for breast cancer.